Environmental issues are not only a matter of our country, but global problems are global. The real environmental problem is a common problem and requires a solution by sitting with both developing and developed countries. Indonesia is one of the countries that are building the economy through improvements in all aspects, namely energy, food and industrialization. However, the economic activity is not the least that leads to the destruction and destruction of natural resources and the environment and endanger human health. For example, the cheap rent of land per year causes damage to land and wastes. The abundant supply of water results in usage patterns that tend to damage and pollute, as well as air. Referring to the view of Vandana Shiva, a world philosopher and environmental activist, reveals that without human care the nature in which we live will only be the place that erodes human life itself for sure. Man’s view of nature that tend to be mechanistic is the derivation of the way of explorative thinking that leads to capitalistic. Shiva’s greatest critique of capitalistic neoliberalism is related to his analysis of the history of modern science based on the masculine way of thinking. Masculine thinking is characterized by rational, competitive, aggressive, and dominative tendencies. This principle is different from Shiva, who embraces the feminine principle, where feminine humans are more intuitive, prefer to coordinate and cooperate and more inclined to nurture and care.
More than that, he argues, economic development as a condition of modernization is more directed to engineer and motivate society to conquer nature. The presence of environmental ethics tends to be ignored, simply becoming a discourse without being internalized masiv in every development policy. The environment is only presented as an inanimate object that has no continuous links with humans. Islam is considered to have no life. Economic activism involving women and environmental perspective which puts nature as a worthy and sustained creature called ecofeminism.
Vandana Shiva’s view of ecofeminism is a contribution to the world of education which is basically a conscious effort in humans with the severe environmental reality around humans. However, many field facts that female feminine character that along with the principle of femininity of the natural environment provide a picture of the contribution of nature conservation is real. Conversely, if the principle of masculinity control of nature, it will tend to happen conquest of nature and the tendency of oppression of women as people who are considered feminine. Therefore, Shiva provides the view that efforts to address the problem of gender relations and preserve the environment must be done through the involvement of women’s role as mothers, caregivers and carers in the family and the environment using the principle of femininity friendly.
Since the first formation of a civilized community, women have made a major contribution to the conservation, management and use of resources (Saleh, 2014). The effort is manifested in the activities of managing agricultural land, plants, animals, forests, and the use of renewable energy. Women contribute through the skills, time, energy, and personal vision they possess solely to the well-being of families and communities. Such good management efforts are underway to ensure the development of the environment in Indonesia, so that this effort will minimize environmental damage while enhancing the relationship between humans and the environment (along with their living creatures) in an ecological framework.
Women have a very strong relationship with the surrounding natural environment. Moreover, his activities can not be separated from looking for food resources and clothing for his family. It also occurs in women close to the forest area to collect forest resources (non-timber) to meet family needs (Agrawal in Sunkar, 2017). This phenomenon has occurred in some countries such as Nepal which has women over 35 years old who have extensive knowledge about the use of plants. This effort is expected by the Nepalese government to support tree regeneration and reduce the number of trees being felled. In addition to Nepal, there are other countries such as Sudan, Malawi, and several other countries that have vast forest resources. In fact, in Bostswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, women are involved in the management and utilization of wildlife. Knowledge of the utilization of various biota is obtained by self-taught experience of interaction with forest resources in the area.
Rural communities in a developing country are very close to natural resources, such as wood, magrove, charcoal, and agriculture (Sida, 2016). In some countries, women will be primarily responsible for the provision of energy for households. However, efforts to meet the energy availability of women still use simple technology, so the efficiency is not optimal. For example on the use of traditional stoves that require a lot of materials to produce energy, such as wood, kerosene, and lighters. Then, realizing this, communities have developed more energy-efficient development, such as the Solar Sister organization that seeks to provide business and marketing training for women. This community has been developed in several countries including Tanzania, Uganda and Nigeria. The existence of a similar community as a follow-up to the inefficiency in the utilization of energy to meet daily needs should be more developed, so that when housewives use energy more efficiently, the cost of economics more can be suppressed. In fact, with the community in providing environmentally friendly energy, such as solar energy, it increases women’s closeness with the environment.
The proximity of women to the environment occurs, one of which is the result of the historical women as victims of environmental damage. For example, cases of deforestation that occur have an impact on the destruction of forests and loss of forest resources commonly used by women. This requires women to travel longer distances to collect wood (Kumar and Hotchkiss in Sunkar, 2017). In the end women will realize how important it is to preserve the environment. In fact, Gifford Pinchot’s 1910 writings as one of the world’s conservation pioneers suggest that the United States relies heavily on the conservation of its women’s knowledge of conservation. It has implications for the government’s role in increasing the knowledge of its women specifically to be able to know more about environmental conservation. In other words, if the number of women who understand about environmental management and resource conservation is high, then the level of environmental quality will increase.
Women as part of the community should be able to participate in monitoring the potential for environmental degradation that will cause health problems (Darmastuti et al., 2012). The occurrence of various pollution should be able to move and become the attention of women. Action should also be accompanied by knowledge of women related to the environment, so that women will be responsive to the environment. In addition, the potential for injustice that occurs during the pollution and the environment requires women to respond quickly, so that does not happen. It is concluded that women are required to be a watchdog against potential environmental damage that occurred.
Ekofeminisme be things to note considering the influence of environmental changes on the existence of women. The Tyas Retno Wulan study in 2007 mentioned that in 1984, precisely December 2-3, there has been 40 tonnes of toxic gas emissions from the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India. This incident has caused the death of 3000 people and 400,000 people still feel the impact. The impact is dominated to date by women. In addition to the kejadin, the impact is great if the environment undergoes a change is in the process of pregnancy a woman or reproductive organs. Studies conducted in Wisconsin, USA in 1990 mentioned that pregnancy abnormalities are often found up to 400% in 1970 to 1987.
In addition to the things mentioned above, in the study Tyas Retno also mentioned that environmental pollution will affect the health of infants. This is based on the findings of 866 cases of infants who breastfed their mothers experienced pollution that affects the milk milk. In other words, the actual impact of quality changes on the environment will be greater impact on women, especially mothers as one of the agents that provide intake to the family. Therefore, the relationship between women and the environment through ecofeminism should be implemented and sustainable, so that environmental management can be based on past experience (women as the greatest victim of environmental damage), so that the implementation is more leverage.
Field facts have illustrated that women have an important role in sustaining the development of sustainable development. Sustainable development which is understood as a development while considering the existence of the future through controlling the utilization of resources and environmental quality will require the participation of women in their implementation. With the existence of a relatively balanced female population with men, so too can education ensure that women’s involvement in order to achieve sustainable development can be expected to increase. Under such circumstances, the inclusion of women in the succession of sustainable development should begin with the placement of women not only as an object of development as it has done so far, but also make women the subject of development (Hastuti, 2009). The current condition is to make women as the object of development from micro to macro level, so that the number of potential of the female population is less effectively utilized.
Various legal grounds have been attempted to be built to support the involvement of women in development in a potentially affirmative way. One of them is Law no. 10 of 2008 on Legislative Election and Law no. 2 year 2008 on Political Parties (Political Parties), the quota of women’s involvement in politics is 30 percent, especially to sit in parliament (Darmastuti et al., 2012). The implication of this law is that women can have direct involvement in various policy-making, especially with regard to the environment. For example in the Law on Environmental Protection and Management (UU PLH) listed in Article 69 of Law Number 32 Year 2009. The existence of this law and the law on women’s quota in legislative will further increase the potential of women to be involved in keeping the environment alive. Furthermore, the Life and Life Management Plan (RPPLH) part III of UUPPLH and Strategic Environmental Assessment (Article 15 of Law No. 32 of 2009) states that women can participate in making policy certainty to development in a region should be based on sustainable principles and ensure no damage to the environment (Darmastuti et al., 2012). Therefore, this legal tool further strengthens the involvement of women in conducting sustainable principled environment development.
The effort to make women as the subject of development involves women in the development process of a country. The involvement of women is not only in the legislative or parliamentary ranks, but also the involvement of women as civil society who will also feel the impact of development. This effort can be done through the integration of gender perspectives in various development processes, so in the end the purpose of development does not harm any of the groups. In accordance with the statement of The Hyogo Framework of Action held by the United Nations (UN) in 2005 which states that “A gender perspective should be integrated into all disaster risk management policies, plans, and decision-making processes, including those related to risk assessment, early warning, information management, and education and training “(Darmastuti et al., 2012). Based on these statements, it is clear that the UN seeks to direct the various elements of life by considering various perspectives. For example in disaster risk management, planning, and decision-making processes. This is because the risks occurring due to these conditions sometimes have different responsibilities for each gender, so a separate perspective from women is required when preparing development plans in a country, particularly those concerning nature and the environment. For example on mitigation on global warming that can be done by women through the use of natural cosmetic equipment without gas thrusters such as hair spray and perfume. Or the idea of a movement, such as the movement to plant trees for the purpose of increasing the urban lung area or protection of water resources. Such efforts can be undertaken by women in enhancing their contribution to life, while minimizing the position of women as those who feel the most impacts of environmental change.
In addition to the aspect of the impact, the presence of women as a party who more feel the impact of an environmental change is on the level of physical and economic development in a country. This development will have implications for sustainable development that strongly considers the existence of the environment in it. The Boserup Esther study discussed in the Tyas Retno study also mentions that the traditional division of labor has changed with the development process. The impact is women who are more disadvantaged because of marginalization of women. In fact, when the Green Revolution, which is predicted to increase the welfare of farmers, increasingly enhances the marginalized position of women because of the capitalist agricultural structure of the Green Revolution. Therefore, basically development should be able to focus not only on men who are the dominant development actors, but also focus on women as a unity of beings that will be affected by development occurring in a country. Ideally involving both sides to jointly contribute to the success of physical and human development.
Evaluation of the impact of development on women is also done by the people and the government of Indonesia, one of which is evaluation on the aspect of population. The existence of development efforts through population arrangement due to population explosion has a major impact for women. Through the Family Planning (KB) program that is expected to control the population, the program tends to cause suffering for women. In accordance with the explanation of Shiva and Mies in Ema Khotimah’s study in 2004 stated that the Family Planning program that women have undergone has an impact on physical and structural violence. In fact, there are cases where the use of contraceptives treats women inhumanely. In the period of time the use of contraception, women have the potential to feel great pain due to technical and medical errors. This pain arises not as a result of maintaining their fertility, but rather because it maintains fertility by the use of contraception. In fact, even worse, the presence of infertility is also the result of applying the method of contraception that damages organs (Dalkon Shield in Khotimah, 2004). In the end, it is women who are blamed for the failure of the program, as well as feel the physical loss due to the implementation of less humane and appropriate programs.
The incidence of negative impacts on women resulting from poorly targeted government development targets is unfortunate given the many explicit and implicit advantages women have, especially in terms of natural resource management. The Sunkar Study (2017) mentions that women have a good traditional knowledge of the various crops that this has contributed to food security. The direct involvement of natural resources makes women’s skills more sharp with the usefulness of available resources. However, the huge potential is often institutionalized, such as the lack of women’s negotiating skills (O’Neil and Domingo in Sunkar, 2017). In other words, women know many things related to resources and are able to manage them well, but can not afford to sell them in the market. In this condition, eventually the role of sales made by men who are more recognized contribution in improving the country’s economy. Therefore, this phenomenon has become one of the causes of women’s sacrifice on state development indirectly unrecognized.
The large contribution of women in many aspects to development becomes an irony if the sacrifice has not been assessed as part of strategic contribution in many aspects, such as in Natural Resource Management (Saleh, 2014). In other words, the existence of women is not recognized as a development contributor because of the assumption that the sacrifice or contribution given by women is already natural or obligation that should be done by a woman. Domestic work of women has never been considered a valuable service (Saleh, 2014). For example, in the case of housewives who have sacrificed greatly in taking care of their children or seeking energy sources to meet household needs, are not recognized and legalized in the labor force (Saleh, 2014). In other words, being a housewife with child care is considered not to contribute at all to development. Therefore, this condition is increasingly indicating that the undermining of contributions that have been done by women should be minimized.
From the above explanation it can be said that the development that should aim to welfare the entire population, it has a negative impact for a certain group, in this case women. The negative impact that occurs on women as one of the objects of development implementation should be able to be anticipated, considering that women can also contribute in various ways for development. Some women have been more dynamic in the current era, especially in their contribution to the development of the country. Yet much remains to be done to elevate women’s dignity today as a result of past policies that put women behind in many aspects. Complete development has not been called development if it has not involved women especially in the field of field and important aspect and in strategic decision making, especially concerning management of natural resources and environment.